Antique Farm Power Club    Member dues $20.00 due on Jan 1st
A 501(C)3 Michigan non profit corporation                 Note: Dues mailing address on left column under page links
                                                                                                            We are now taking Master Card and Visa, call (616) 293-1961 to                                                                                                                                           make your dues payments by credit card

Check back often as this website is constantly changing to keep you updated.

 2023 Board of Directors

2 year director:Clarence Korson

President: Mark Scholten

3 year year director: Tami Buschard

Treasurer: Kathy Bannink

Vice President: Vern Scott

1 year Director: Jim Stuart

Secretary: Irv Boerson


 15th Annual Mackinac Bridge Crossing 9/10/2022

The Mackinac Bridge crossing will remain on Saturday

by decision of the Mackinac Bridge Authority

Bridge club rep:

Mike Bannink (616) 690-6116 or (616) 453-6289 

Mark Scholten (616) 293-1961

February         Official website address

March 1           Registration opens for participants

April 1             Pre orders for apparel opens online

May 14             Club rep meeting at 12:00  in Owossa, Mi Twp hall

May 14            Disclaimer and proof of insurance due at rep meeting

May 21            Virtual Town Hall meeting #1

June 18           Virtual Town Hall meeting #2

July 1              Pre order apparel closes

July 15            New buddy rider registration closes

August  8        Pre order apparel begins shipping

August  22      Participant registration closes

August  15      Buddy seat modifications deadline    

September      Finalize participant roster

September  7  Tractors start arriving at the Staging area

September  10 The day we have been waiting 365 days for

2022 information

We are excited to announce the 15th Annual Mackinac Bridge Antique Tractor Crossing!

We have some important updates to share below.

Please read through this email and let us know if you have any questions.

Date Change – The Mackinac Bridge Authority is under new leadership.

They have made the decision, based on traffic and other factors, to move events to Saturdays instead of Fridays.

This includes the tractor show.

Therefore, until further notice, the Bridge Crossing will be held on a Saturday.

The date for this year’s Crossing is Saturday, September 10.

This was a surprise to us, as we’re sure it is for you, and will mean some changes to the event schedule, but we are thankful that we aren’t one of the events that has been canceled and that we’re still able to put on this show.

We will be putting out an event schedule as soon as we confirm some logistics with St. Ignace.

We will also be posting the change to our website and Facebook pages.

Entry Fees – We are currently working through entry fees for 2022.

Due to some changes from the Mackinac Bridge Authority, we are evaluating the event budget.

We are also looking into sponsorship packages with other companies this year to offset the new costs.

We’ve always tried to be as transparent as possible with the club reps, and we wanted to let you know about this now.

Our goal is not to raise the entry fee by much, if at all, but it will take a bit longer for us to know for sure what that looks like.

If you know of a company or individual that is interested in being a sponsor, please let us know or we can send you more information.

Buddy Riders – Buddy riders will once again be allowed in the Crossing.

Last year we had a record number of issues and a record number of participants not reading the rules when registering new seats.

Because of this, for 2022 new buddy riders will need to submit photos and have them approved prior to registering for the Crossing.

We will have an online form to submit pictures ahead of time.

Once approved, they can register online as normal.

Registrations for new buddy seats without prior approval will be canceled.

Buddy seats that have gone before and have no changes do not have to send pictures and can register as normal.

Club Registration – The club registration form is up! If you have any issues with it let us know!


Participant Registration – Participant registration will open on March 1 and will look very similar to last year.

Club Reps – We cannot tell you how much we appreciate the hard work of all the club reps each year.

This event would not be possible and would not run as smoothly without all of you, and we mean that sincerely.

We are looking forward to working with you all again this year!

We are making some changes on our end so the rosters are easier to access, our team is easier to get ahold of and rosters are updated quicker.

Stay tuned for more information.

We will be posting updates shortly on Facebook and our website.

We cannot wait until September!

As always, if you have any questions, please email us, or call/text Rebecca at 989-721-6882.

Thank you! Mackinac Bridge Antique Tractor Crossing Staff

New Participant Information
We know that participating for the first time can be a bit overwhelming and we are here to make it simple!
Below are steps you should take if you are interested in signing up for the Crossing. The deadline for 2019 is August 24, 2019 (late fee applies after August 1, 2019). There is a cap of 1500 tractors and it's a first come, first served basis. To be registered a participant must send entry form and payment in at the same time and be a registered member of a participating club.

If you have any questions, most information can be found on this site. If you need assistance, please email us at



Read the rules and regulations! It's very important to understand the rules and make sure your tractor qualifies. Participant rules can be found by clicking here.

Do you belong to a participating club? The list of current 2019 clubs can be found by clicking here. This list will change as new clubs sign up through July. If you do not belong to a club, please contact us and we will get you in touch with a club accepting new members. You will need to pay the club dues (usually around $15) and then pay the entry fee for the Crossing.

If you do belong to a participating club already, please contact your club with any questions or requirements prior to registering with us.

Once you are signed up for the Crossing, you will want to book your hotel. Hotel recommendations can be found by clicking here?. Most hotels require a credit card to hold the room, but do not charge up front. Most St. Ignace hotels are within 1/2 mile of the staging area in downtown St. Ignace. There is also a campground, Straits State Park in St. Ignace. Click here for information on the campground.  Please note: There is no camping at the staging area in Mackinaw City or St. Ignace.

Registration and entry fee may be paid online, mailed in or given to your club (if that is their preference).  A completed participation form and payment must be received at the same time in order to be registered.

A tractor driver checklist is provided to ensure you bring everything needed for the drive. For that checklist, please click here.


?Participants are encouraged to arrive at the staging area anytime Tuesday or Wednesday, or early in the day on Thursday. Event staff will be onsite all day and night Tuesday-Thursday. Please do not arrive on Friday morning, as there is too much congestion with everyone arriving prior to Crossing.

The staging area is located just West of Mackinaw City on Central Avenue. Take Exit 339 from I-75. Stay in the right lane. Once you exit, follow the tractor parade signs to the gravel pit (about 1.5 miles west of town). The gravel pit will be on the left hand side. 

When you pull into the gravel pit, one of our event volunteers will meet you. You will be given an event book and a map of where your club is parked. You will be given instructions for where to unload your tractor and where to park your truck/trailer if you are leaving it. Please follow instructions of our volunteers, who will be wearing either volunteer shirts or yellow/orange vests. If you have any questions or concerns please see Rebecca or Jeremy in our Information tent.

Our event staff will be located in the information tent for any questions. We will also have official event merchandise and apparel for sale as well.  An event schedule will be posted closer to the Crossing.

Parking:  There is limited parking available for cars behind the information tent. Please only park in this designated area. Do not stop/stand/park in the gravel drive for any reason, for any length of time. Do not park outside of the gravel pit.

Security will be onsite at the gravel pit all night Thursday.


No public are allowed in the Mackinaw City staging area for any reason on Friday morning. Limited parking is available for participants in the designated areas. Please only park in the designated area. Do not stop/stand/park in the gravel drive for any reason, for any length of time. Do not park outside of the gravel pit.

Transportation: We offer bus transportation for participants from St. Ignace to the Mackinaw City staging area Friday morning. This helps to cut down on the vehicle traffic and is convenient, as you don't have to worry about getting your car later.  For bus information, please click here.

All participants are to be at the Mackinaw City staging area no later than 7:30am on Friday morning. Please go to your tractor and ensure everything is in working order.

Each tractor and buddy rider will receive an official entry magnet just before we leave for the Bridge. This will be handed out by your club representative. Please be at your tractor ready to receive it. The entry magnet authorizes you to be on the bridge and tells the Michigan State Police and the Mackinac Bridge Authority that you are authorized to be in the parade. Only those participants and buddy riders that have paid their fees and have approved tractors will be allowed to cross. Your club representative has a list of all drivers and buddy riders that are approved. Please do not ask our staff for your entry magnet (or "medallion") as the club rep is the only one who can hand it to you. Your club rep will have a meeting with Bob and Rebecca early in the morning and then will receive the packet of entry magnets for their club. They will then pass them out at the tractors.

Event staff will be onsite from 6:30am - 8:30am for any questions or if you would like to purchase apparel or merchandise.

At 8:30am there will be an opening ceremony. We ask that everyone shut down their tractors by this time, and if able, make their way to the front of the gravel pit. We will do a flag raising, as well as sing the National Anthem. There will be a few opening remarks, and then everyone will be instructed to start up their tractors and get ready to roll!


There are two parades during the crossing. The first parade will immediately board onto the Bridge and start crossing it. The second parade (about 300 tractors) will wait in Mackinaw City and then parade through town before boarding onto the Bridge.

It is against regulations for anyone to swap drivers during the parade before or on the Mackinac Bridge. If you started out in the gravel pit, you will need to remain on the seat throughout the parade. Reminder: Drivers must be at least 18 years old. Buddy Riders can be 16, but must be approved ahead of time and under no circumstances are to operate the tractor. 

Once you cross the Bridge you will parade to St. Ignace and be parking at Little Bear Arena (behind the NAPA store). This is where the tractors will stage for the weekend.  County Line Antique Tractor Club will be parking all the tractors. They have been assisting us with this for years and are great at it. Please listen to them and park where instructed. There is a strategic way of parking to ensure all tractors fit in the parking lot. Important: If you are going right home Friday morning after you cross, you do not have to park with the tractors. You can continue to the gravel section of Little Bear Arena where the loading docks are.

Our event staff will be in the information tent all day Friday and Saturday for questions or if you would like to purchase merchandise or apparel.

Lunch will be served inside Little Bear Arena from 11am - 3pm. Choice of hot dog, hamburger or chicken with chips, drink and a cookie will be served for a small fee. Lunch is catered by Little Bear Arena and is completely separate from Owosso Tractor Parts.

Bathrooms are located inside Little Bear Arena.

2020 We appreciate your patience the last few weeks while we monitor the COVID-19 situation. We would like to share some updates. As of today, there are no plans to cancel or reschedule the Crossing. Participant registrations are still open. We understand with the uncertainty right now that some participants would rather wait to register. Please let your members know this is totally fine. However, currently, the Crossing will take place as scheduled and we are moving forward with plans. Club Reps will be the first to know of any changes. Please help us keep rumors at bay by encouraging your members to verify information with your or us first. Unfortunately, we will need to reschedule the rep meeting that was scheduled for May 16. We were hoping to avoid this, but we are not confident the stay at home order in Michigan will be lifted by then. If it is lifted, we don’t believe it’s worth the risk to have club reps travel to the meeting right now from all over the state and outside Michigan. We have rescheduled the meeting to Saturday, July 25, which is the only date available for the building. Please let us know ASAP if you will be able to make it so we know if there is enough participation to hold the meeting. We understand this is much later than normal and we appreciate your flexibility and understanding. Even though it’s being held later than usual, we still believe it’s worth having, especially given the current situation and that we are crossing on 9/11, with some additional items planned. We are working to get rosters updated. Rebecca’s full time job in a cyber security company has been extremely busy right now, and we are a bit behind on new registrations. Our goal is to have that updated this weekend. We hope you are all staying healthy. Please pass notes along to your members and we look forward to hearing from you about the rep meeting and seeing you in September. This event will mean even more this year and we are really looking forward to seeing everyone. If you have any questions, please reply back or call/text 989-721-6882. Rebecca, Bob, Jeremy

2019 Rules and Regulations
(Updated February 12, 2019)
All participants must agree and abide by these rules. Failure to comply with the below rules and
regulations will result in disqualification from the event, with no refunds. Rules are in effect for the
entire duration of the event. There are no refunds of event registration fees for any reason.
12th Annual Mackinac Bridge Antique Tractor Crossing
As the official sponsor of this event, Owosso Tractor Repair & Parts reserves the right to change and/or
amend any of these rules and regulations as it sees fit to make this event safe for all those involved. Club
representatives/presidents must check the website for any changes to any rules or regulations.
The term event from here on can be but is not limited to any of the following phrases or terms: Owosso
Tractor Repair & Parts Antique Tractor Bridge Crossing Parade, Owosso Tractor Repair & Parts
Mackinac Bridge Crossing, Antique Tractor Mackinac Bridge Crossing, Antique Tractor Crossing, Tractor
Event, Tractor Crossing Event, Antique Tractor Event.
A tractor club is referred to but not limited to the term/terms Antique Tractor Club is set forth as follows
described as: A legally registered Antique Tractor Club of antique farm tractors and/or farm equipment
club, Antique Tractor Association, Tractor Club Association. The club must be registered with the State of
Michigan or their respective state and/or county they legally reside in as a tractor club and have either a
legal DBA (Doing Business As) or Not-For-Profit Antique Tractor Club or Tractor Association status
Definition of a tractor club member and or members also referred to on this site as a member, club
member, tractor club member. A member and or members here forward are referred to as a member of a
legally registered antique tractor club and/or legally registered tractor association. A member must be
current with their tractor club and are registered with that club.
The club registration form online is your official registration for your club to participate in the Owosso
Tractor Repair & Parts Antique Tractor Parade & Show 2019 and the Mackinac Bridge Antique Tractor
Crossing 2019. As president or official representative of your club you agree to the rules and regulations
set forth for this event and agree that your members will adhere to the rules and regulations. You also
agree that your club and its members will agree to a hold harmless contract to relieve Owosso Tractor
Repair & Parts, The Mackinac Bridge Authority, The Village of Mackinaw City, Darrow Construction, Katie
Darrow, The City of St. Ignace and Little Bear Arena of any liability that may occur during the event. A
hold harmless form must be signed and in the possession of Owosso Tractor Repair & Parts one month
before the event. Clubs not participating in the “Hold Harmless”, “Rules & Regulations” requirements will
not be allowed in the event.
1. Speed Requirements: Your antique tractor MUST be able to maintain a minimum speed of 10 MPH. All
participants are required to maintain 10MPH during the parade and avoid large gaps. Failure to do so
may mean disqualification from the event.
2. Alcohol: There will be a ZERO TOLERANCE for alcohol before, during or after the bridge crossing
through St. Ignace. Wait until your tractor is parked in St. Ignace to celebrate. Don't drink and ride and
don't drink and drive. No alcohol of any kind will be tolerated.
3. Model Year Requirements: Tractors built 1979 and before are the only tractors allowed in the parade
across the bridge. Some special series of tractors may be allowed. Please call or email us for special
series/model participation.
4. Age Requirements: No one under the age of 18 years will be allowed to drive a tractor across the
5. Tractor with Pneumatic tires ONLY. Steel wheels or spades, spikes, grouser pads, crawler tracks, spike
wheels, steel wheels with solid rubber pads or solid tread will not be allowed to drive in the parade. Read
further, you can still cross but it will have to be on a trailer in the parade.
6. Trucks and Pickup Trucks hauling trailers with equipment can be in the parade if you decide to haul
your load across instead of driving. This is meant for people who want to show off their crawlers or
tractors with steel wheels but won't or can't for obvious reasons. No empty trucks in the parade.
7. Slow moving vehicle signs will not be required as long as you are in the parade.
8. Weather issues were addressed and it was decided that the parade will go on rain or shine so watch
the weather before you leave. The only thing that would stop the parade is high winds in excess of 35
MPH. If the winds are over 35 MPH the show will be called off and there will NOT be another time to
cross. There is a possibility, though remote as it may seem, that we may not be able to cross at all and
you need to be aware of this now. Remember safety first.
9. Flags are OK but they must be put in line with your tractor, not side by side. We do not want them to
obstruct the view of the road ahead of you and others behind you.
10. People movers will not be allowed. Tractors allowed to drive on the bridge will not be allowed to tow
wagons or trailers with people on them during this event.
11. Extra Rider: “Buddy Rider” MBA has agreed to allow a single Buddy Rider for the 2019 event. See
“Buddy Rider Rules” for more information.
12. Trailer Signs: Clubs with trailer signs with their club name can be towed behind a tractor, but no
people on the trailer or wagon being towed.
13. Tractor signs on tractors: Club signs may be bolted securely to your tractor as long as they do not
obstruct the view of the driver or other drivers. This will be strictly enforced because of safety.
14. Floats will not be allowed.
15. Implements on tractors or trailer are allowed as long as they are secured by your hitch. Implements
on a trailer being hauled by your truck are fine.
16. Entry Fees: Entry fees are non-refundable and non-transferrable. If a participant has paid and cannot
attend, they may not transfer their registration/payment to another member.
17. Parade Safety: All tractor drivers must drive their tractors in single file on all roadways, including and
not limited to the Mackinac Bridge unless they are instructed to do otherwise. Or they are unable to
because of a breakdown, avoid an accident or traffic officials instruct them to. Current law enforcement
may even ticket those who decide to play games on the roadway or race other tractors in the parade. All
clubs and their participants agree to follow the given routes of the parade and not cause undue hazards
to other drivers, pedestrians, car traffic or others who simply want to watch the parade. Respect the safety
of others. Safety is our utmost concern and we expect everyone to cooperate.
18. Fire Extinguishers: All clubs during the event will be required to carry at least but not limited to one (1)
of the Type A B C dry type fire extinguisher in their group of tractors. Larger clubs with more than 20
tractors will be required to carry a minimum of two (2) of the Type A B C dry type fire extinguishers in their
group of tractors. Your club is not limited to the number of fire extinguishers you can bring. Make sure
your fire extinguisher is strapped to your tractor properly so it doesn't fall off during the parade but yet
easy to get to in case it is needed.
19. Tow Straps or Tow Chain Required: All tractors will be required to carry a suitable tow strap or tow
chain in case of a breakdown of your equipment. If your tractor breaks down during the parade in
Mackinaw city and it can’t be fixed before the actual bridge crossing you will not be allowed to be towed
across the bridge. If during the parade on the Mackinaw city side your tractor does break down, you can
still cross the bridge if you get it fixed before the actual bridge crossing event is over, even though you
may be out of line. You can rejoin the parade or your club just before the bridge crossing. We reserve the
right to adjust the time of the actual bridge crossing.
20. Owosso Tractor Repair & Parts and its employees have the right to disqualify any participant(s) and
or club(s) that refuses to abide by any single one of these Rules & Regulations set forth. Owosso Tractor
Repair & Parts and any of its employees have the right to disqualify anyone who jeopardizes the safety of
21. All clubs and their members agree to respect all property of Owosso Tractor Repair & Parts, the
city/village of Mackinaw City, St. Ignace, Mackinac Bridge Authority, Darrow's staging area, Little Bear
Arena, Mackinac County Airport in St. Ignace and all other areas used for the event.
22. Emergency: In case of an injury, accident or emergency call 911 immediately.
23. Medallion: “Official Entry 2019” magnetic medallions are to be placed on the right hand front corner of
your tractor if possible. If not the right front corner, then on the right hand side in the hood area for the
Mackinac Bridge Authority to observe as you get on the bridge. Anyone without the “Official Entry 2019”
medallion may be stopped and pulled off to the side by employees of Owosso Tractor Repair & Parts, the
Mackinac Bridge Authority, and state or local law enforcement to verify your qualification to
participate. Verification will be done through our database your club representative provided Owosso
Tractor Repair & Parts before the event. If your name is not on the participant’s database then your club
representative must verify your qualification. Read Reference number 24 for violators of the event.
24. Violators of the event: Tractor drivers in the event who do not possess an “Official Entry 2019”
medallion legally from a club representative or Owosso Tractor Repair & Parts and are found in the event
at any time illegally, are hereby disqualified from participating. If necessary they will be removed from the
event by law enforcement. Such violators will be at the mercy of local and state law enforcement
officials. They can be fined and their tractor can be impounded by law enforcement for entering a parade
illegally. It’s also illegal to be on the Mackinac Bridge without permission of the Mackinac Bridge
Authority. Those entering the event without permission are risking fines and jail for doing so. See:
Violators consequences.
25. Tractor Parking Allowed: Only tractors that are registered through their respective club for the event
are allowed on the property that we control, lease, rent or otherwise occupy during the event. This
includes Mackinac Staging Area (Darrow pit) or parked at the St. Ignace Little Bear lot, Mackinac City
Parade, St. Ignace Parade(s) Friday morning or Saturday downtown parade, Mackinac Bridge Antique
Tractor Crossing Parade. No one will be allowed to just drive in and park or participate in the event unless
you and your tractor are registered with the event through an approved club or Owosso Tractor Repair &
Parts. Those who chose to disrupt our event and park their unregistered tractors in these areas will be
towed away at the owner’s expense and have to deal with the local authorities.

A few things to remember:

If the tractor has taken a buddy rider in the Crossing before, we do not need to see pictures again, as long as nothing has changed
For new buddy seats, we require at least four pictures of different angles of the seat
New for 2019: New buddy seats must have pictures submitted with registration, or registration will not be accepted. If you register online, you can upload photos right to the form. If you mail in registration please mail in photos
New buddy rider registrations and pictures must be received by July 15, 2019.
If we require any modifications, those need to be completed by August 15, 2019 and new pictures emailed to
If you have any questions on buddy seats, please call Bob Baumgras with Owosso Tractor at 989-729-6567 or email
Buddy seats must be approved by Owosso Tractor and the club rep/president
There are no refunds for buddy seats

2019 Buddy Rider Rules
(Updated February 12, 2019)
The Mackinac Bridge Authority (MBA) has given approval for Buddy Riders to participate in the Owosso
Tractor Repair & Parts Antique Tractor Parade & Show 2019 / 12th Annual Mackinac Bridge Antique
Tractor Crossing. A strict set of safety rules have been set in place. Each Buddy Rider must abide by
these rules set forth by Owosso Tractor Repair & Parts and approved by the MBA. These rules must be
agreed to by participating Buddy Riders, driver and club President.
• Each Buddy Rider must be at least 16 years or older to ride next to the driver in the parade on the
tractor. Tractor driver must be 18 years old, as described in the event Rules and Regulations.
• Buddy Riders aged 13-15 will be allowed to participate in the 2019 Crossing. These riders must
be on a bench seat behind the driver. An adult (18+) must accompany the 13-15 year old's on the
bench seat.
• Each Buddy Rider must be a member of the respective participating club. Some clubs have family
membership. Contact your club board to verify if family members are included on their club
All Buddy Seats must be submitted to Owosso Tractor Repair & Parts and your club President at no later
than July 15, 2019. Any modifications we request must be completed by August 15, 2019. If your seat has
been approved a previous year and has not been modified in any way, you will not need to have it
approved again. All Buddy Seats must follow the guidelines below:
• New for 2019: All new buddy seats or modified seats must submit photos at time of
registration. You will not be able to register a buddy rider unless pictures of have
 If you are registering online the form will request photos to be uploaded prior to
 If you are registering in person, please bring photos with you
 If you are registering by mail, please send photos with registration
**NOTE: Registrations that are mailed in or presented in person without photos will be returned and
registration will not be completed.
Photo Requirements
• At least four photos of different angles of the seat must be submitted upon time of
registration. These photos should show how the seat is bolted on and include all
requirements listed below
1. All Buddy Rider seats must be secured to the tractor beside the driver if possible. No Buddy Rider will
be directly behind the driver unless there is a safety bumper separate from the seat frame. No Buddy
Rider will be ahead of the driver. No buddy rider may sit over the fender.
2. Seat must not be rusted out or welded up.
3. Tractor must have fenders to protect the Buddy Rider from the tractor tires.
4. There can be absolutely no interference to the driver’s ability to drive the tractor across the Mackinac
Bridge or the entire parade route safely. This includes tractor steering, clutch, brakes, and vision of the
driver. The driver must have full control of the tractor at all times. At no time will the Buddy Rider be
allowed to have control of the tractor.
5. All tractors with rotating parts (i.e. brake drums) near the tractor’s operating station will be required to
have guards covering these parts to protect Buddy Rider and driver.
6. Absolutely no Buddy Rider seats mounted directly to the rear straight drawbar only.
7. Buddy rider seat must be fixed, not using the hitch to lift up and down.
8. All seats must have a secure and safe back support for the rider. Even if the tractor may have a seat
for a rider from the factory, it will still need to be approved by Owosso Tractor Repair & Parts.
9. A grab handle must be secured to the tractor for the Buddy Rider’s safety during the parade. Seat belt
use is at the sole discretion of the Buddy Rider. Those using seat belts should read about the pros and
cons of using a seat belt on a farm tractor. The
advises against the use of seat belts on a tractor unless the tractor is
equipped with a ROPS (Roll Over Protection System). Visit the above website for more information. If a
seat belt is used by the Buddy Rider, it must be installed securely and safely on the tractor.
10. OTPE and the MBA assume no liability for Buddy Riders, the tractor or the driver during this entire
11. All buddy rider seats must face forward.
12. Club officials have the right to deny any Buddy Rider or driver during this event
13. Owosso Tractor has the right to amend or modify these rules at its discretion
14. By signing the Participant Form, the Buddy Rider agrees to abide by the above rules. Failure to
comply with these rules will disqualify the individual and the buddy rider from participating in the event.
OTPE and the MBA will be enforcing these rules prior to and during the event.
Comments or questions concerning the Buddy Rider Rules can be sent